Fermentation for Health & Social Change.

Earlier this summer, Octopus Alchemy was asked to participate in a program of talks and seminars, held for the community by the Brighton Natural Health Centre (BNHC). The centre kindly recorded the presentation to make it accessible to the wider community. It makes for a great resource for my project and represents the politics and understanding that drive my work around health and food in the community.

In what follows, I try to bring together current research and insights into food, health and healing to show how the simple act of fermenting in the home kitchen can not only benefit ourselves personally but reverberate into wider social, political and environmental realms.

You can click here or on the logo below (soon to be our permanent brand) to be redirected to the presentation 🙂

Enjoy!

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Addenda and clarification to the video:

  • Somehow I manage to state in the talk that global food waste amounts to 2BN tonnes per annum – I think a better figure is probably around 1.3BN tonnes.
  • When discussing the role of biomedicine to blindsight us to how social factors; particularly war, poverty and oppression impinge on our health and human potential, the research I have in mind is by: File, D. (2004). The medical text: between biomedicine and hegemony. Social Science & Medicine 59 (1275-1285).
  • When discussing the origins of biomedicine, I don’t fully do justice to Biomedicine’s genesis as part of the colonialist project of the West and which has ‘a long history of appropriation and assimilation of Indigenous knowledges.’ Specific reference to: Hollenberg, D. & Muzzin. L (2010). Epistemological Challenges to Integrative Medicine: An Anti-Colonial Perspective on the Combination of Complementary/alternative Medicine with Biomedicine. The Journal of Health Section of the Australian Association 19:(1) 34-56

 

 

 

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Oxytocin is the messenger. Touch is the healer.

Is there a biological and scientific premise to the importance of touch in our lives and communities? Yes.

Those human communities that still live as tribe might have a giggle at our need to have explained and justified what is such an obvious joy and pleasure. But nevertheless, the biology of touch is a complex and beautiful one and if it can illuminate how touch is such a critical factor in how we bond and relate to one another – so be it.

Oxytocin seems so sterile and sharp a name to describe the particular hormone who’s task it is to lay the foundation for human bonds and connection. It is a hormone set to work and signaled via touch – a complex and miniature stimuli that encourages an opening of one being to another, so that deep bonds and connection can be forged.

It is the hormone prevalent at the time of birth – when in that intense period of eye gazing and closeness between Mother and child just moments after delivery, Oxytocin saturates both parties to create a sense of soothing, deep connection that will be the premise of their relationship for the rest of their lives. This is why it is vital that touch and eye gazing between Mother and child in those early moments should go undisturbed.

But beyond that very early facility – Oxytocin goes on to help us feel connected to one another every day. Appropriate touch received gladly and without fear initiates a release of Oxytocin that encourages a sense of calm and connection that is pivotal to optimal functioning of the body. It creates a safe breathing space for our being – a place where we feel accepted, seen and loved enough that our bodies heal in the supportive environment they deserve. Beyond touch, just creating a loving, supportive environment for one another can be enough to promote the release of Oxytocin.

The more we learn about Oxytocin, we see that it impacts positively on well being in so many ways – from pain relief, to lowering blood pressure, aiding digestion, balancing body temperature, speeding up the healing of wounds and positively effecting the amount of cortisol (an inflammatory hormone) in the body.

But let’s not get distracted – as fascinating as Oxytocin is, it is just the messenger. The real healer is touch. Share it widely.

The Lab – Experiments in Culinary Dissidence.

Since November 15th, Octopus Alchemy has been crowdfunding. To date, we’ve raised a staggering 55% of our overall target (about £2100) and the donations keep coming thick and fast. I’m completely overwhelmed by the generosity and interest in the project and it’s turned out to be a cracking experience in networking with other like minded folk and businesses. Special mention to Viridian Nutrition who pledged a whopping £500 to the campaign. But also, to the 68 other backers who have been inspired to take part.

So all being well, the crowdfunder looks to yield a brilliant start up fund to propel Octopus Alchemy to new and exciting heights next year. A significant portion of our crowdfunder was to secure some traditional tools and kitchen bling to improve our workshop experiences, but to also make viable a project to turn the city’s surplus veg into a superfood product for sale.

The interesting part of that process will be the actual production. Our current twice monthly workshops at Silo (and our fledgling workshops in Sheffield too) are well known for their fusion of food-politics, health education and food-skills – engaging and equipping people with radical knowledge and pragmatic skills in a fun and interactive environment.

Next year we want to take it further, creating a radical laboratory for the community; a co-created space where we can play with ideas, perspectives and most importantly, our food! Each workshop will be prefixed with a good natter about the politics of our health and food – with special guests from different ventures and projects that are actively challenging the status quo. Of course there will always be some focus on fermentation, with a whole range of new and innovative demonstrations to help you get fizzy with your food –  but we’ll have a wonder through other approaches and practices in food and medicine too; broadening our knowledge and therefore our resistance!

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Beyond that, the practical part of our workshop is where it will get even more interesting. At any given workshop, we hope to be working with ingredients intercepted on their way to landfill – an array of different ingredients to get creative with that would otherwise have ended up in the bin. This is where we’ll come together in utilizing our new fermentin’ toolkit in producing a distinct and quirky product for distribution and potentially, sale!

So come to ‘The Lab’ next year and let’s foment the next food revolution.

Our first workshop takes place on the 10th January – get your tickets now.

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‘More than a workshop on kimchi – it speaks to the politics of food, access & inequalities too.’

Over the next month of our crowdfunding, we’ll be checking in with people who have been to one of our workshops and drawing on some of their experiences to help illustrate the benefits of supporting our work. Below we speak to Aidan who came to one of our workshops in July.

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Aidan 🙂

What is your name?

Aidan McGarry.

What attracted you to the workshop with Octopus Alchemy?

I wanted to learn more about the politics of food. I am into cooking and enjoy knowing about different aspects of taste and production. I knew the workshop would educate me on a topic I knew little about.

Did the workshop play out as you expected it to?

Yes the workshop played out as I had hoped and expected. I appreciated the theoretical background to fermentation: ‘the science part’. If we didn’t have this underpinning it would feel as though something was missing.

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Octopus Alchemy at the Coniston Institute.

How do you feel that the workshop experience changed your perspective on health and nutrition?

What I really enjoyed about the workshop was how it changed my knowledge and understanding of health and nutrition. I think everyone should understand about the health benefits of fermentation. But more than that there is a clear social value to it too. As issues around food waste and inequalities become more pronounced workshops like this make people aware of what they are eating and why. The fact that it tastes good is a bonus.

Why should people support Octopus Alchemy’s crowdfunding campaign?

People should support Octopus Alchemy’s crowd funding because it is an excellent idea created by someone who is extremely passionate and knowledgeable of a topic which concerns us all. It is more than how to make kimchi (although that is a great reason to run a workshop!) as it speaks to the politics of food, access and inequalities.

 You can read another testimonial about OA workshops here.

Octopus Alchemy:

Activating communities. Reducing Waste. Creating superfood.

We believe that to ferment is a radical political act, the effects of which reverberate beyond the kitchen. Back our fermentation-based, waste-reducing project in Brighton & Hove of ‘Transforming Food Waste into Superfood’ and support us in continuing to have a creative impact on our local food culture and beyond.

Check out our wicked incentives. No donation to small. If you can’t spend, then please share.

 

 

Let us tempt you to our ‘kraut-funder’ – check out our wares :)

Octopus Alchemy are crowdfunding ‘kraut-funding’.
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Fermented ‘Night-Shade Free’ Salsa.

We launched on November 15th and are running the campaign right through until December 13th. The drive is to support an exciting new collaborative project between Octopus Alchemy, Silo and The Real Junk Food Project, Brighton – as well as to boost our workshop experiences with some new kitchen bling and to fund the development of a new online portal for awareness raising and resources.  We want to raise around 4K.

The project is to ‘Transform the City’s Food Waste into Superfood’ for sale. We’re basically going to hoover up surplus veg in the city and engage the community through our current workshops on food / health politics and fermentation in turning it into a lovely fermented product for sale. The proceeds of which will help nourish our mutual projects to continue making an impact on the local food and health culture of Brighton – and beyond.

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Darren fermentin’ up a storm at Silo with a lovely bunch of supporters.

This blog post will be a platform for the developments of the campaign and a one-stop shop to find out about our supporters, sponsors and incentives to help get you in the mood for supporting us in getting this project off the ground.

You can get directly to our crowdfunding page here.

Otherwise, check out this video where I tell you all about the project before you have a gander at the incentives on offer.

Sponsors and incentives:

Drop in. Let go. Regain flow. Gift vouchers for thai-massage with Octopus Alchemy, to treat a loved one (of yourself!) this Christmas. You can get vouchers for 1, 2 or 4 treatments and £35, £60 and £100 consecutively – click on the individual prices to be redirected to the pledge page.

001Thanks to Sandor Katz and his publisher Chelsea Green for donating a copy of ‘The Art of Fermentation’ and ‘Wild Fermentation’ to the crowdfunding drive. All life is in these books! They are foundational texts for anyone interested in fermentation. Get ‘The Art of Fermentation’ here and ‘Wild Fermentation’ here.

 

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Octopus Alchemy are very pleased to be supported in our crowdfunding campaign by Wild Nutrition who have donated a super-rich, nutrient-dense hamper of their Food-Grown® supplements to the drive.

Wild Nutrition are a local company (Lewes), producing pioneering supplements: which through some biochemical wizadry, binds extra minerals and nutrients to food-stuff by harnessing the power of the glycoprotein.

Introducing the glycoprotein to an already nutrient dense substrate encourages it to metabolize and re-naturalise the extra vitamins and minerals – and then, give it a blow and voila! – a super nourishing and bioavailable product.

Wild Nutrition have gifted us their Food-Grown® Magnesium, Food-Grown® B Complex Plus and Food-Grown® Immune Support. And we’re passing them on for a very healthy £25.

The Marlborough Theatre, Brighton have donated two tickets to their incredible ‘Camp as Christmas’, to take place on the 8th December. Just £15 here.

The delightful Egg & Spoon in Kemptown have donated one of their delectable breakfasts and a cuppa (or any other drink) as an incentive to the crowdfunder. Two of these babies on offer. Get ’em quickly for a tenner here.

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About Balance, Brighton gave us one of their ‘Karma Cards’ to give away – this entitles you to a reduction on all classes and treatments at the centre for one month. They also threw in a free yoga class with Effie of Hannah. Click here to claim for £20.

Big Cat Bodywork aka Tom Cowan who has a profile on our site here in the bodywork section – has donated SIX one to one yoga classes in the Vajrasati style to the cause. This guy is a phenomenal teacher – prepare to blissed out by his wise and heartfelt tutorship. Stretch out and grab a ticket to some hot, sweaty contentedness here. And for £20, this is a steal.

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Temple Chocolate.

Temple Chocolate, Brighton have donated some of their super sensual chocolate to the drive. This stuff is crazy good folks – so support us with a fiver and grab one whilst you can here.

Octopus Alchemy is putting up five vouchers for a free entrance to one of workshops ‘An Archaic Revival Food’ in the near future. A whopping / OA Workshop - 15.11.15-12mind expanding Christmas gift if ever there was one. Grab them here, whilst you can for £20.

Numan from The Body Shop has donated two of their Christmas hampers; one ‘Strawberry Festive Picks’ and the other, ‘Shea Butter Festive Picks’. Click on each individual hamper to pamper yourself or a loved one for Christmas. Both are just £15.

Small Batch Coffee, Brighton have donated ten cups of their darkest brew to keep you perky this winter. Claim one here.

Winner of the 2013 BP portait award, Susanne Du Toit, has donated a copy of a book containing a wonderful selection of her portfolio. Get this and a bar of raw choc from Brighton’s Temple Chocolate for £20.

HummingbirdHawkmoth, a local craft worker who makes stunning jewellery has contributed one of her exquisite brass or copper bangles to the campaign. Mesmerize with this lovely little gift-box by following the link here. Just £25. Worth £35!

Thanks also to:

Infinity Food’s Cooperative, who were kind enough to donate £60 of vouchers to the drive – they were snapped up quickly. Obviously.

The UK’s first zero-waste eatery, Silo, who donated a slap up lunch with drinks to the drive. Of which some lucky supporter will be enjoying very soon. And who contribute so much to our work besides.61njIZBJpqL._SX258_BO1,204,203,200_

‘Fermentistas’ L & C Shockey who donated a signed copy of their beautiful and innovative book ‘Fermented Vegetables’ to the drive – someone is in for a wonderful education in the fermentation arts.

Curry Leaf Cafe of Ship St, Brighton who pledged a £50 voucher to the campaign for a night of some authentic Indian nosh.

Christian De Sousa – who donated a copy of ‘Postcards from Babylon’. A high-octane trip through the worlds most intense urban environments via the medium of story telling, autobiography and photo-documentary. It’s a signed copy and will make someone very happy.

The dedicated fermentivist Amanda Feifer, who donated a copy of her 51F1T4v7j0L._SX258_BO1,204,203,200_hot-off-the-press ‘Ferment Your Vegetables’ – set to make waves in the fermentation community.

Thanks to Bend Fit Mend, Brighton who donated one of their Aroma30 bespoke bodywork sessions as an incentive to the campaign.

Thanks to Sarah at Pure People, Brighton who donated 30mins of biofeedback testing as an incentive to the campaign.

Thanks to Barra Organics in Sheffield who donated a beechwood muddler (aka ‘kraut-pounder’) and a cabbage slicer to the drive.

Thanks to Eat Naked who donated a stunning free raw-food lunch at their eatery in East Street Arcade, Brighton.

 

 

 

 

OA Update.

Hello friends,

It’s rare we indulge in an ‘update post’, but there are so many developments and opportunities on the horizon over the coming months that we wanted to shine a light on them.

Yesterday (October 21st), we hosted yet another cracking little workshop at Silo in Brighton, with special guests Old Tree Co-op participating to showcase their radical little micro-brewery that keeps the restaurant furnished with a diverse range of wholesome fermented drinks.

We have a very special month ahead for October, with our first appearance being at the College of Global Studies in London, lecturing for a course on Environment, Community & the Arts.

Afterward, we travel to the north where we are holding workshops on the 14th, 17th & 19th of October on political nutrition and fermentation with The Real Junk Food Project Manchester, The Real Junk Food Project: Sheffield and Real Junk Food Project Wigan- Fur Clemt cafe consecutively.

Then, week beginning 20th October, we will be off to Coniston and Lawson Park for the ‘House of Ferment’ with Grizedale Arts – talking an ‘Archaic Revival of Food’ and the significance of fermentation as a political act.

We are still waiting to hear about a potential appearance at the Food Sovereignty gathering on the weekend of the 23rd October but look to be back for another workshop on the 26th October at our home and hub of radical food politics, Silo.

We will also be running a workshop on behalf of the ‘Feed the 5K’ event in Brighton, date to be confirmed later this month.

Thanks to everyone that makes this work possible. Proper gratitude! Check out some of our recent workshop photos below 🙂

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Old Tree Coop discuss the politics of their micro-brewery and the drinks kefir and kombucha.

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Thread cut like a pro – participants get to grips with sauerkraut.

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Investigating kefir.

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Sweet Tatty’s ready for some spice.

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The famous seabuckthorn kefir – with a seabuckthorn champagne in the wings. Only at Silo, Brighton.

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Packing a punch: Fermented Salsa.

Recipes spun from the ‘brown gold’.

The motivation behind this blog was never to showcase particular recipes as such – but it just feels selfish to keep these two hidden away from the rest of the world. You can only post so many pictures of raw chocolate creations to your facebook feed before friends get impatient for a few guidelines.

I’m definitely a fan of raw chocolate – I like its ‘buzz’, its clarity, distinctiveness and purity. For the past few years I’ve been very lucky to live above a popular health food store in Brighton and a fair chunk of my food budget has been spent sampling the delights that the world of raw chocolate has to offer: from bigger operations such as the raw chocolate company, raw living & raw pie – to more recently, local artisanal produce courtesy of ‘Temple’ chocolate (highly recommended); with flavours such as ‘goji and mulberries’ and ‘rose and lavender’.

Don’t get me wrong, there’s no doubt that the shelves downstairs provide a wonderful selection of ‘quick fixes’ – but I prefer to make my own from time to time. Despite the good quality of ingredients contained in many raw chocolate products, producers still tend to fill their products with improperly prepared nuts (phytate nightmate) and sweeteners that some of us on stricter protocols and regimes would rather avoid. Anyway, I reckon I’ve conjured a few recipes here that many of us can enjoy and they’re a proper marvel in the mouth – but it wouldn’t be an OA post without a bit of background on the good stuff, first.

The origins and spread of the divine ‘Theobroma Cacao‘. 

Chocolate has its genesis as a fruit bestowed upon humanity by an act of divine will – according to the mythology of the Mayan people that is. Discovered by gods in the mountains of the Mexican plains, cacao was gifted to the Maya shortly after humans were deftly crafted from maize plants by the divine grandmother, goddess Xmucane [1]. 

Theobroma Cacao‘, literally meaning the ‘food of the gods’ has been revered by Native American cultures for generations – being used as both medicine and in ritual. In fact, the ritualistic, spiritual and political significance of this plant in these early cultures is a vast and complex affair. The earliest references suggest it was a celebrated crop of the ancient inhabiting members of the lowland regions of the Mexican gulf coast, the Olmecs. Afterward being adapted and enjoyed by the Mayans and then assimilated by the Aztecs (later arrivals to the central valley of Mexico) as food and medicine. In these cultures, cacao was gorged upon by the elites and used in ceremony – with the Mayan’s offering it up in ritual to celebrate the cacao god itself, Ek Chuah, along with the sacrifice of cacao coloured dogs and the blood of warriors [1]. 

Medicinally, cacao was used to carry other medicines too bitter in taste on their own, but also prescribed independently, on account of its own diverse and unique therapeutic qualities. Dillinger et al (2000) provide a very useful (if extensive) analysis of the historical medicinal application of cacao, through an excavation of ancient Mexica culture and later European colonial medical documents. These early texts delineate three general therapeutic applications for cacao: treating emaciated patients to inhibit further decline, to stimulate the nervous system of those feeling fatigued or weak, to aid elimination and to treat a variety of GI conditions.

The colonisation and terrorism of the ancient Mexica cultures severed cacao from its history and sacred and ritualistic basis – with Hernán Cortés, Spanish conquistador, presenting cacao as a form of ‘brown gold’ to King Charles of Spain in 1528 [2]. Cacao’s unappealing taste to the colonisers was adapted to suit the palettes of the raiding elite by adulterating it with cane sugar – and wham, confectionery was born. This surge of interest in cacao in the West, medical or otherwise, was very much resisted by the Christian church, who poured scorn and suspicion on the substance for its ‘exhilarating effects’. However, gradually, cacao, once only prepared as a beverage to anoint the elite of the old Mexica cultures and to be used as medicine, after 1880 became a very popular foodstuff, fashioned into all kinds of fancies and coveted by Western elites [1].

Modern analysis confirms that the therapeutic qualities of chocolate are significant and diverse [2], with cacao’s nutritional profile weighing it in as a very potent ‘superfood’  – which in comparison to other foods, seems to pack a far denser punch of nutrition per ounce. Its ‘richness in carbohydrates, fat and phytonutrient flavonoids’ and a wide-spectrum antioxidant profile, make it a very nourishing, sustaining and anti-inflammatory food: indicated as effecting a broad range of conditions such as ‘cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders and mental health conditions’ [2]. The consumption of cacao is also said to confer enhanced cognition.

These days we are saturated in chocolate – with the global chocolate market value being set at £98.3BN by 2016. The UK chocolate industry alone is worth £3.96BN with a projected 35% increase in sales over the next five years.

But it seems insane to talk about medicine in the context of the confusing array of bags and bars of the stuff on display today – rather than serve the elite, there are temples dedicated to a particular kind of chocolate on every street corner of our towns and cities. Indeed, where food poverty festers, the mars bar reigns king. The chocolate that lines the aisles of our ubiquitous corner shop is a high-sugar, high additive sludge; more brown crack than brown gold – and our communities are hooked. Dark chocolate of varying quality is still popular no doubt but pales in contrast to its highly processed milky cousin.

Of course, all chocolate originates from the cacao bean. However, the different processing methods of cacao churn our very different results. Cocoa, which is produced from cacao via processing and heat treatment, has been shown to be more impoverished nutritionally compared to its comparably unprocessed mother-bean (check out this wicked and friendly analysis by nourishmylife). This claim is rubbished by a number of folk – a main contention being that the definition around what constitutes ‘raw chocolate’ is spurious and unregulated. But further, a number point to the high risk of contamination of cacao that hasn’t been properly heat treated – one study cited frequently points to how naturally occurring ‘mycobiota’ in raw batches of cacao, produce potentially poisonous byproducts such as ‘aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1 and G2, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA ) and ochratoxin A (OTA)’ [3]. There’s also a big hoo-haa about the contamination of cacao because of the insanitary environments it is produced and stored in. It seems a fair point that many are cashing in on a niche market without a proper architecture of scrutiny and regulation in place – but let’s hope that whatever does arise as an antidote, does not put undue or unfair expectations on constraints on already poor, overworked and undervalued producers.

It’s worth bearing in mind that exploitation and abuses inherent to the export and trade of chocolate were not unique to colonialism. Producers are still given an offensive deal on their labour and produce, with big corporations creaming off the real profit at the end of the process when it’s sold to privileged consumers (Check out ‘Stuffed & Starved’ by Raj Patel for a good analysis). A recent article on takepart explores the issue of child labor in chocolate production too – for example, there has been a 46% increase in the number of children working in ‘hazardous conditions [on cocoa farms] between 2009 and 2014 in the Ivory Coast alone’. Of course, the study was commissioned by the US Department of Labor – it’s unclear what the political motivations of that kind of inquiry are. Nevertheless, it says something important about an economy whereby parents are forced to put their children to work, because of the pittance they are paid for their toil.

Overall, cacao definitely has a colourful (dark?) history (and an uncertain future, given climate change) and disputes around its proper preparation and uses persist even today. If you indulge in cocoa or cacao, try and remember its complex and sacred legacy and to honour it as much as possible by putting your money where it counts; supporting ethical sources and products, that treat their workers and the environment that holds and supports them, with respect. 

 

How to make some good stuff:

Here is the recipe for ‘medjool date and mulberry bites’ – you’ll have to wait for the ‘chocolate pecan fudge’, I’ll make that batch in the next few days.

 

Equipment list:

  1. A pan of water.
  2. A heat-resistant bowl that fits snuggly inside the pan (ceramic or stainless steel).
  3. A wooden spoon.
  4. Scales.
  5. A blender.
  6. A tablespoon.
  7. A teaspoon.
  8. A measuring jug.
  9. A mold of some description to decant your mixture into.

Ingredient list:

  1. 125G of raw cacao butter.
  2. 4 TBSP of raw cacao powder.
  3. 1 TBSP of maca.
  4. 1 TBSP of lacuma (enirely optional – sweet enough).
  5. 6-9 medjool dates.
  6. Large TBSP of coconut oil.
  7. 1 TSP of vanilla essence.
  8. Handful of mulberries.
  9. 1/2 TSP of spirulina (optional – nutritional enough!).
  10. Cap full of maple syrup (entirely option – sweet enough!)
Ingredients (some of them).

Ingredients (some of them).

 

Process:

  1. Bring your water to a boil and turn down to simmer, nestle your bowl into the pan.
  2. Weigh out 125G of raw cacao butter and add to the bowl.
  3. Wait until the cacao butter has melted.
  4. Blend your dates into a smooth paste.
  5. Add the paste to the cacao butter.
  6. Add 4TBSP of raw cacao powder.
  7. Add 1TBSP of coconut oil.
  8. Stir the mixture slowly, pressing the mixture firmly to the side of the bowl so that the fruit slowly dissolves (don’t be tempted to blend – it disturbs the end product).
  9. Add 1TSP of vanilla essence.
  10. Add 1TBSP of Maca (if no lacuma, add 1/2TBSP more).
  11. Add 1TBSP of Lacuma (optional).
  12. Add 1/2TSP of spirulina (entirely optional – nutritious enough without).
  13. Add a small cap full of maple syrup (entirely optional – sweet enough without).
  14. Stir the mixture gently, still gently pressing out the fruit.
  15. Transfer the mixture to a measuring jug.
  16. Add 1 to 2 mulberries to each of the mold sections.
  17. Use a teaspoon to take the thicker mixture from the bottom of the jug and spread evenly across your mold.
  18. Top the rest up with the remaining liquified mixture.
  19. Refrigerate until solid.
  20. Enjoy.
Weigh out your cacao butter.

Weigh out your cacao butter.

Melt your cacao butter.

Melt your cacao butter.

Blend your dates into a paste.

Blend your dates into a paste.

Prepare your trays with mulberries.

Prepare your trays with mulberries.

Add your dates and other ingredients to the cacao butter, squash out the dates gently.

Add your dates and other ingredients to the cacao butter, squash out the dates gently.

Once suitable consistency. Transfer to jug.

Once suitable consistency. Transfer to jug.

Spoon out the thick date mixture into the tray first.

Spoon out the thick date mixture into the tray first.

Top off with the liquid chocolate.

Top off with the liquid chocolate.

 

Stay tuned for ‘chocolate pecan fudge’ =D

 

 

References:

[1] Dillinger et al (2006). Food of the Gods: Cure for Humanity? A Cultural History of the Medicinal and Ritual Use of Chocolate. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 130:(8) 20575-20725

[2] Lippi, D. (2013). Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food. Nutrients. 5:(5) 1573-1584

[3] Sánchez-Hervás, M et al. (2008). Mycobiota and mycotoxin producing fungi from cocoa beans. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 125: 336 – 340