Fermentation for Health & Social Change.

Earlier this summer, Octopus Alchemy was asked to participate in a program of talks and seminars, held for the community by the Brighton Natural Health Centre (BNHC). The centre kindly recorded the presentation to make it accessible to the wider community. It makes for a great resource for my project and represents the politics and understanding that drive my work around health and food in the community.

In what follows, I try to bring together current research and insights into food, health and healing to show how the simple act of fermenting in the home kitchen can not only benefit ourselves personally but reverberate into wider social, political and environmental realms.

You can click here or on the logo below (soon to be our permanent brand) to be redirected to the presentation 🙂

Enjoy!

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Addenda and clarification to the video:

  • Somehow I manage to state in the talk that global food waste amounts to 2BN tonnes per annum – I think a better figure is probably around 1.3BN tonnes.
  • When discussing the role of biomedicine to blindsight us to how social factors; particularly war, poverty and oppression impinge on our health and human potential, the research I have in mind is by: File, D. (2004). The medical text: between biomedicine and hegemony. Social Science & Medicine 59 (1275-1285).
  • When discussing the origins of biomedicine, I don’t fully do justice to Biomedicine’s genesis as part of the colonialist project of the West and which has ‘a long history of appropriation and assimilation of Indigenous knowledges.’ Specific reference to: Hollenberg, D. & Muzzin. L (2010). Epistemological Challenges to Integrative Medicine: An Anti-Colonial Perspective on the Combination of Complementary/alternative Medicine with Biomedicine. The Journal of Health Section of the Australian Association 19:(1) 34-56

 

 

 

“There’s a monster lurking in my gut.”

Trailing through the reams of research and stuffy articles on digestive health and autoimmune conditions, the human story can sometimes get a bit lost. For instance, there’s a great deal of focus on symptom complaints and potential remedies but little on the significance and meaning of the struggle and the way it shapes our lives. Join me in this three part conversation with kindred spirit Jonny, as we explore the history and experience of our own gut problems and the change it brought to our lives.

Darren: Hey Jonny! The reason why I was so moved by your story, much like my own, is that we haven’t been passive to the experience of being sick. In fact, it seems to have been very transformational for us in terms of our own research and the different life choices we have had to make in order to heal; essentially changing the way we live and relate to others. I’d like to invite people into that perspective through our conversation – looking at the experience of two people that have become active in social change around health and their story as it relates to healing the gut.

Jonny: Yeah – let’s do it!

Darren: So – tell me a bit about your story? I would like to hear about where you are now? What’s your perspective on the history of your illness and recovery?

Jonny: There were a number of significant events leading up to my getting ill – it’s only recently become clear that they contributed in a big way to my illness. For instance, when I first got ill, I had no need to question my lifestyle. I just thought that it was a dose of antibiotics that destroyed my gut.

When I was younger everything was so easy for me. I was an Olympic athlete, I went to grammar school and I had perfect results in everything; I was very popular and played every sport under the sun. I went to America on a scholarship to play sport – but unfortunately things didn’t work out. I returned to the UK after that to work in a corporate bank. I earned a lot of money and lived the 9-5 lifestyle, spending a lot of money on drugs at the time.

I think the antibiotics that fucked up my gut were the straw that broke the camels back in a way. You know, there are people that stay on antibiotics for years and yes they have health problems, but they don’t enter the virtually psychotic states that I entered into after an initial six month treatment.

When I first embarked upon the holistic path to healing I focused solely on healing my gut and I found that I did make a lot of progress through diet; doing the candida protocol; doing the iodine protocol, having my mercury amalgams removed, going on a heavy metal detox, juicing etc – I did a lot of meditation too.

But it wasn’t until I went down the route of self-reflection through psychotherapy… I would say my actual gut health, ironically, seems to have improved more after looking at why I got to that point of complete overload. Why did the antibiotics tip me over? It was that whole prelude of looking at my life up until that point that became very significant to my healing.GUTEMOTIONS

Now I can see that in the time leading up to when I got ill I had turned off from the world – every year I was becoming more and more self absorbed in my bubble of what was becoming patterns of terrible behaviour – mindless consumerism, a poor relationship, living in a house which was a terrible environment for me. So yes, there’s a lot of things that have gone wrong in my gut, but my gut is very much connected to so many aspects of who I am, who I am as a person, my psyche – trauma, anger, regret, passion, love.

Darren: Resonates completely.

Jonny: Personally, I’ve had a few experiences with DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) in previous years. Every time I use DMT I get this incredible surge of pain in my stomach and I feel like there is a monster lurking there. I enter a bit of a battle when I do DMT. When I see friends on it they’re transfixed by colours and beauty – but I’m writhing about in pain? It’s only through self-reflection and psychotherapy that I’ve started to explore this ‘monster’ in my gut; It’s related to things that have happened to me in the past, things that I’ve internalised over the years and things that have been passed down the line from my parents and my family.LURKING

Such intense pains are a bit strange as I don’t tend to get digestive pains anymore. They’ve subsided – they come back a little if I drink milk, eat gluten or have some yeast. My gut is generally quite stable compared to where it was, which is why I believe I have done an incredible amount of healing on the physical level but I have much deeper psycho-spiritual levels to delve into.

Darren: I think you raise two important points. This notion that you inherit the pain and suffering of your parents – there is certainly some residue of that at both the cognitive and somatic level for all of us. In regards to the psychedelic and entheogenic experience as a way of tuning in and understanding what’s being held in the body, my own experience is also of very intense sensations and feelings whilst being in that state of consciousness. My experience is of some kind of blockage, of there not being adequate ‘flow’ or movement energetically within the body. Essentially I think this relates to some early trauma and is what underpins to some extent the digestive issues I have. The health of my gut is linked completely to the way I relate to the world, the emotions I carry – the fear, anxiety, anger and so on. I think this is borne out by work in the field of psychotherapeutic bodywork. For example, Welhelm Reich’s work around character structure and armor is a good place to start.

HolismI think healing the gut demands a truly holistic approach and demands that we stretch the limits of what we currently understand and practice as ‘holistic’. There clearly isn’t one way into healing the gut – and even colleagues in alternative health circles need to be challenged on this point sometimes, not just biomedical practitioners who work through a very narrow lens. There’s obviously so much more going on than what happens at the level of biology.

What I’d like to hear though – is a little bit more about the actual experience of when your gut became compromised post antibiotic use and a little bit more on the awakening to a more holistic perspective on health and healing?

Jonny: Cool. Back to when I was working in a bank and consuming mindlessly – things that I would class as escapism – I was spending a lot of money on stimulants and partying. When I was about 21 I suddenly developed acne which was very surprising – as there was no history of it in my family and I had perfect skin as a child and a teenager. It was really unusual to get really deep sebaceous cysts which were like horns on my head. Very painful. The doctor at the the time took one look and didn’t seem very interested. He prescribed me antibiotics and said that would get rid of it. I trusted the doctor at that time – I had no reason to question medical science as I’d had very little engagement with the field. I had a very healthy childhood. The acne disappeared within three weeks – however, after about four months, I began displaying various symptoms whenever I ate cereal, which at the time was apparently a healthy diet as far as I was concerned – you know, low fat, don’t eat butter, wholegrains and all that stuff!

Darren: haha! It’s terrifying isn’t it! The mainstream advice on what correct nutrition is! Especially when you contrast it with what is appropriate nutrition – where the main precepts completely challenge mainstream dietary advice.

Jonny: Yeah, anyway – my normal breakfast of oats, honey and milk would start to cause me bloating, terrible wind and pain on the way to work. There was also a real change in my energy too. This developed to where I would get sweats after having cereal and milk in the morning. I’d basically feel like shit. After a month of this I went out for some beers with friends and woke up the next day with the most horrendous diarrhea compounded by an awful panic attack. The only way I can describe it is as if my brain was on a treadmill – my thoughts were racing at a speed I’d never experienced before. I had a Researchterribly hot core but my limbs were freezing. The panic attacks continued and I had to take time off work; my appetite declined and my mental health spiraled. I finally went to the doctors who said I had a virus and to stay on the antibiotics that I was on. I started to loose lots of weight in the following weeks, my mood dropped and all my social activities stopped too. I ended up going to my Dads for a weekend of rest and recuperation – it was when I was with him that I started to have suicidal thoughts for the first time. I’d never had any mental health problems up until this point. It really threw me. My mental health continued to decline until I became completely delusional – I’d lost the plot. I didn’t know what was happening, I struggled to talk – my parents had to take me to the doctors as I was incapable of driving. He put me on antidepressants.

It was my parents who did the initial bit of research online and said that there were lots of testimonies from people who had taken antibiotics and ended up with stomach problems, IBS and depression.Antibiotics

Darren: Which antibiotic were you on at the time?

Jonny: Lymecycline. Part of the tetracycline class of antibiotics. Total broad spectrum nuclear bomb – it’s like putting a nuclear bomb in a fish pond to kill a bit of algae overgrowth.

I was on SSRI’s too – you know, they usually say that you get worse before you get better on SSRI’s. Well at this point I was very sick, I lost so much weight I looked liked a holocaust victim. I was totally cut off from the world – it was like being in an acid trip that was the most horrendous trip you could imagine. I slept for twelve hours a day and couldn’t get out of bed. I struggled to be in a room without my mum because my anxiety was so bad. After six months of this – after having to do CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) just to leave the house and see friends again, my digestion improved slightly and I went back to work but still left with residual anxiety and also OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder). I couldn’t handle any stress though and began to experience real fatigue and exhaustion. I slowly realised that my job wasn’t fulfilling me – I started to ask what I was doing with my life.

Darren: Before we get onto that… I wanted to pick up on the parallel. My own experience was very similar. I spent four months on antiobiotics as prophylaxis when I went travelling in the East four years ago. The specific antibiotic was Doxycycline I think. My mental health immediately suffered after returning from the trip. I’d had mental health problems in the past – I’d also had a lot of other courses of antibiotics in the past too. But not to the severity after returning from the trip. The first insight of my medical doctor at the time was to prescribe SSRI’s, much like you – totally missing the point that the mechanism that was causing the distress – the depression, the OCD and related anxiety was a disturbance in gut ecology.

SerotoninJonny: Yeah, I mean the concept of serotonin – that in itself is flawed in many ways. Two things come to mind with serotonin – you can measure serotonin levels in the body via a blood test. That’s no indication of what is actually going on in terms of the brain and then the gut and then the serotonin neurotransmitters that are throughout the body.

As far as I am aware you can’t measure what the efficiency or the use or the level of serotonin is in the synapses of the axons – you can measure what the levels of serotonin are in the blood, which the NHS don’t do anyway – but if they did do it, it doesn’t relate to the levels of serotonin that are in the brain or in the gut. Secondly, the SSRI works as a selective re-uptake inhibitor. It allows the serotonin to cross over into the synapse of the axons but stops the re uptake; the theory being that within the synapse the serotonin is allowed to stay there and somehow that improves our mood because the re-uptake of it is stopped. Again, this seems flawed. Why wouldn’t you concentrate on increasing the serotonin through nutrition, which you can do by encouraging more tryptophan in the diet which is an amino acid that converts to serotonin. You can find huge amounts of tryptophan in bananas, chicken…

Darren: There’s also 5HTP..

Jonny: Yeah! That’s the pre-cursor, proven to cross the blood brain barrier..

Darren: I guess, remarkable effects of 5HTP on conditions like IBS too?

Jonny: Yeah, there’s been some really interesting published research on 5HTP too – a lot of it compiled into a great book called 5HTP: the natural way to overcome depression, obesity and insomnia by Michael murray. I think the serotonin theory is massively debatable – there’s a complete disparity of correlation in levels of serotonin in the blood and peoples quality of life or mental health. For example, some people have very low levels of serotonin levels and may be absolutely fine but someone who has depression may have normal levels of serotonin – one of the first studies to show this disparity was published in in 1976 by Asbert (1). Serotonin levels are just part of the picture, a very small aspect – there’s an incredible amount of things going on, whether that’s toxicity in the body, energetic imbalances due to trauma, nutritional deficiencies, other neurotransmitter deficiencies – you know serotonin is just one aspect.. you have dopamine, gabareceptors…

Darren: Which all perform and act synergistically I guess. The body it seems is an ecological system – you can’t look at one unit of the body and try to map from that exactly what is going on?

Jonny: You’ll find in orthodox medicine a lot of the drugs are obviously patented – but they are for conditions they will make money on. You can’t patent 5HTP, it’s an amino acid and it’s made for peanuts. You can buy 100 pills for between £10-15 and it will last you a couple of months. Compare that to Zoloft and Prozac / Sertraline – they were really expensive when they first came out. They are still riding out on the fact that people don’t have access to this information. I had to deal with the side effects of all of those drugs. I remember having terrible insomnia for example after going on SSRI’s. I wouldn’t be able to get to sleep and it completely disturbed my energy system – like a sensation of electricity running thought the body. When I did get to sleep I wouldn’t wake refreshed. They also effected my erections – when I got an erection, I couldn’t orgasm.

Darren: That’s really interesting – the point about orgasm. Would you say that your overall sensitivity was reduced too?

Jonny: It’s a very common side effect of SSRI’s actually. Even after coming off the SSRI’s my sex drive has returned – but my sensitivity has been compromised still definitely. There seems to be some lasting damage in that area in terms of decreased sensitivity. I found when I did some research years ago and found out about quite a number of law suits that had been taken out by a number of males that were experiencing lack of sensitivity and also impotence. A good book out at the moment is the ‘Emperors New Drugs’ by Irving Kirsch – it’s basically about the SSRI ‘hoax’; basically the terrible hypothesis and flawed research that they are founded on. When you look at the media support for products like this, you can usually trace anything supportive back to someone who has an invested interest.BIAS

Darren: Yeah – I mean if you look more broadly at clinical trials – the much vaunted ‘randomised control trial’ that is seen as the gold standard of scientific ‘proof’ – they are nearly always backed by pharmaceutical companies that have a vested interest in them, with the outcome usually being in their favour. I mean this is pop research – easily findable. I think Ben Goldacre mentions it in one of his books.

Okay Jonny – let’s catch up soon in the next segment!


  1. Asbert, M. (1976). Serotonin depression: A biochemical subgroup with the affective disorders?Science,191, 478-80; Asberg, M., (1976). 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid.Archives of General Psychiatry33, 1193-97.

The Lab – Experiments in Culinary Dissidence.

Since November 15th, Octopus Alchemy has been crowdfunding. To date, we’ve raised a staggering 55% of our overall target (about £2100) and the donations keep coming thick and fast. I’m completely overwhelmed by the generosity and interest in the project and it’s turned out to be a cracking experience in networking with other like minded folk and businesses. Special mention to Viridian Nutrition who pledged a whopping £500 to the campaign. But also, to the 68 other backers who have been inspired to take part.

So all being well, the crowdfunder looks to yield a brilliant start up fund to propel Octopus Alchemy to new and exciting heights next year. A significant portion of our crowdfunder was to secure some traditional tools and kitchen bling to improve our workshop experiences, but to also make viable a project to turn the city’s surplus veg into a superfood product for sale.

The interesting part of that process will be the actual production. Our current twice monthly workshops at Silo (and our fledgling workshops in Sheffield too) are well known for their fusion of food-politics, health education and food-skills – engaging and equipping people with radical knowledge and pragmatic skills in a fun and interactive environment.

Next year we want to take it further, creating a radical laboratory for the community; a co-created space where we can play with ideas, perspectives and most importantly, our food! Each workshop will be prefixed with a good natter about the politics of our health and food – with special guests from different ventures and projects that are actively challenging the status quo. Of course there will always be some focus on fermentation, with a whole range of new and innovative demonstrations to help you get fizzy with your food –  but we’ll have a wonder through other approaches and practices in food and medicine too; broadening our knowledge and therefore our resistance!

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Beyond that, the practical part of our workshop is where it will get even more interesting. At any given workshop, we hope to be working with ingredients intercepted on their way to landfill – an array of different ingredients to get creative with that would otherwise have ended up in the bin. This is where we’ll come together in utilizing our new fermentin’ toolkit in producing a distinct and quirky product for distribution and potentially, sale!

So come to ‘The Lab’ next year and let’s foment the next food revolution.

Our first workshop takes place on the 10th January – get your tickets now.

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‘More than a workshop on kimchi – it speaks to the politics of food, access & inequalities too.’

Over the next month of our crowdfunding, we’ll be checking in with people who have been to one of our workshops and drawing on some of their experiences to help illustrate the benefits of supporting our work. Below we speak to Aidan who came to one of our workshops in July.

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Aidan 🙂

What is your name?

Aidan McGarry.

What attracted you to the workshop with Octopus Alchemy?

I wanted to learn more about the politics of food. I am into cooking and enjoy knowing about different aspects of taste and production. I knew the workshop would educate me on a topic I knew little about.

Did the workshop play out as you expected it to?

Yes the workshop played out as I had hoped and expected. I appreciated the theoretical background to fermentation: ‘the science part’. If we didn’t have this underpinning it would feel as though something was missing.

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Octopus Alchemy at the Coniston Institute.

How do you feel that the workshop experience changed your perspective on health and nutrition?

What I really enjoyed about the workshop was how it changed my knowledge and understanding of health and nutrition. I think everyone should understand about the health benefits of fermentation. But more than that there is a clear social value to it too. As issues around food waste and inequalities become more pronounced workshops like this make people aware of what they are eating and why. The fact that it tastes good is a bonus.

Why should people support Octopus Alchemy’s crowdfunding campaign?

People should support Octopus Alchemy’s crowd funding because it is an excellent idea created by someone who is extremely passionate and knowledgeable of a topic which concerns us all. It is more than how to make kimchi (although that is a great reason to run a workshop!) as it speaks to the politics of food, access and inequalities.

 You can read another testimonial about OA workshops here.

Octopus Alchemy:

Activating communities. Reducing Waste. Creating superfood.

We believe that to ferment is a radical political act, the effects of which reverberate beyond the kitchen. Back our fermentation-based, waste-reducing project in Brighton & Hove of ‘Transforming Food Waste into Superfood’ and support us in continuing to have a creative impact on our local food culture and beyond.

Check out our wicked incentives. No donation to small. If you can’t spend, then please share.

 

 

Let us tempt you to our ‘kraut-funder’ – check out our wares :)

Octopus Alchemy are crowdfunding ‘kraut-funding’.
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Fermented ‘Night-Shade Free’ Salsa.

We launched on November 15th and are running the campaign right through until December 13th. The drive is to support an exciting new collaborative project between Octopus Alchemy, Silo and The Real Junk Food Project, Brighton – as well as to boost our workshop experiences with some new kitchen bling and to fund the development of a new online portal for awareness raising and resources.  We want to raise around 4K.

The project is to ‘Transform the City’s Food Waste into Superfood’ for sale. We’re basically going to hoover up surplus veg in the city and engage the community through our current workshops on food / health politics and fermentation in turning it into a lovely fermented product for sale. The proceeds of which will help nourish our mutual projects to continue making an impact on the local food and health culture of Brighton – and beyond.

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Darren fermentin’ up a storm at Silo with a lovely bunch of supporters.

This blog post will be a platform for the developments of the campaign and a one-stop shop to find out about our supporters, sponsors and incentives to help get you in the mood for supporting us in getting this project off the ground.

You can get directly to our crowdfunding page here.

Otherwise, check out this video where I tell you all about the project before you have a gander at the incentives on offer.

Sponsors and incentives:

Drop in. Let go. Regain flow. Gift vouchers for thai-massage with Octopus Alchemy, to treat a loved one (of yourself!) this Christmas. You can get vouchers for 1, 2 or 4 treatments and £35, £60 and £100 consecutively – click on the individual prices to be redirected to the pledge page.

001Thanks to Sandor Katz and his publisher Chelsea Green for donating a copy of ‘The Art of Fermentation’ and ‘Wild Fermentation’ to the crowdfunding drive. All life is in these books! They are foundational texts for anyone interested in fermentation. Get ‘The Art of Fermentation’ here and ‘Wild Fermentation’ here.

 

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Octopus Alchemy are very pleased to be supported in our crowdfunding campaign by Wild Nutrition who have donated a super-rich, nutrient-dense hamper of their Food-Grown® supplements to the drive.

Wild Nutrition are a local company (Lewes), producing pioneering supplements: which through some biochemical wizadry, binds extra minerals and nutrients to food-stuff by harnessing the power of the glycoprotein.

Introducing the glycoprotein to an already nutrient dense substrate encourages it to metabolize and re-naturalise the extra vitamins and minerals – and then, give it a blow and voila! – a super nourishing and bioavailable product.

Wild Nutrition have gifted us their Food-Grown® Magnesium, Food-Grown® B Complex Plus and Food-Grown® Immune Support. And we’re passing them on for a very healthy £25.

The Marlborough Theatre, Brighton have donated two tickets to their incredible ‘Camp as Christmas’, to take place on the 8th December. Just £15 here.

The delightful Egg & Spoon in Kemptown have donated one of their delectable breakfasts and a cuppa (or any other drink) as an incentive to the crowdfunder. Two of these babies on offer. Get ’em quickly for a tenner here.

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About Balance, Brighton gave us one of their ‘Karma Cards’ to give away – this entitles you to a reduction on all classes and treatments at the centre for one month. They also threw in a free yoga class with Effie of Hannah. Click here to claim for £20.

Big Cat Bodywork aka Tom Cowan who has a profile on our site here in the bodywork section – has donated SIX one to one yoga classes in the Vajrasati style to the cause. This guy is a phenomenal teacher – prepare to blissed out by his wise and heartfelt tutorship. Stretch out and grab a ticket to some hot, sweaty contentedness here. And for £20, this is a steal.

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Temple Chocolate.

Temple Chocolate, Brighton have donated some of their super sensual chocolate to the drive. This stuff is crazy good folks – so support us with a fiver and grab one whilst you can here.

Octopus Alchemy is putting up five vouchers for a free entrance to one of workshops ‘An Archaic Revival Food’ in the near future. A whopping / OA Workshop - 15.11.15-12mind expanding Christmas gift if ever there was one. Grab them here, whilst you can for £20.

Numan from The Body Shop has donated two of their Christmas hampers; one ‘Strawberry Festive Picks’ and the other, ‘Shea Butter Festive Picks’. Click on each individual hamper to pamper yourself or a loved one for Christmas. Both are just £15.

Small Batch Coffee, Brighton have donated ten cups of their darkest brew to keep you perky this winter. Claim one here.

Winner of the 2013 BP portait award, Susanne Du Toit, has donated a copy of a book containing a wonderful selection of her portfolio. Get this and a bar of raw choc from Brighton’s Temple Chocolate for £20.

HummingbirdHawkmoth, a local craft worker who makes stunning jewellery has contributed one of her exquisite brass or copper bangles to the campaign. Mesmerize with this lovely little gift-box by following the link here. Just £25. Worth £35!

Thanks also to:

Infinity Food’s Cooperative, who were kind enough to donate £60 of vouchers to the drive – they were snapped up quickly. Obviously.

The UK’s first zero-waste eatery, Silo, who donated a slap up lunch with drinks to the drive. Of which some lucky supporter will be enjoying very soon. And who contribute so much to our work besides.61njIZBJpqL._SX258_BO1,204,203,200_

‘Fermentistas’ L & C Shockey who donated a signed copy of their beautiful and innovative book ‘Fermented Vegetables’ to the drive – someone is in for a wonderful education in the fermentation arts.

Curry Leaf Cafe of Ship St, Brighton who pledged a £50 voucher to the campaign for a night of some authentic Indian nosh.

Christian De Sousa – who donated a copy of ‘Postcards from Babylon’. A high-octane trip through the worlds most intense urban environments via the medium of story telling, autobiography and photo-documentary. It’s a signed copy and will make someone very happy.

The dedicated fermentivist Amanda Feifer, who donated a copy of her 51F1T4v7j0L._SX258_BO1,204,203,200_hot-off-the-press ‘Ferment Your Vegetables’ – set to make waves in the fermentation community.

Thanks to Bend Fit Mend, Brighton who donated one of their Aroma30 bespoke bodywork sessions as an incentive to the campaign.

Thanks to Sarah at Pure People, Brighton who donated 30mins of biofeedback testing as an incentive to the campaign.

Thanks to Barra Organics in Sheffield who donated a beechwood muddler (aka ‘kraut-pounder’) and a cabbage slicer to the drive.

Thanks to Eat Naked who donated a stunning free raw-food lunch at their eatery in East Street Arcade, Brighton.

 

 

 

 

OA Update.

Hello friends,

It’s rare we indulge in an ‘update post’, but there are so many developments and opportunities on the horizon over the coming months that we wanted to shine a light on them.

Yesterday (October 21st), we hosted yet another cracking little workshop at Silo in Brighton, with special guests Old Tree Co-op participating to showcase their radical little micro-brewery that keeps the restaurant furnished with a diverse range of wholesome fermented drinks.

We have a very special month ahead for October, with our first appearance being at the College of Global Studies in London, lecturing for a course on Environment, Community & the Arts.

Afterward, we travel to the north where we are holding workshops on the 14th, 17th & 19th of October on political nutrition and fermentation with The Real Junk Food Project Manchester, The Real Junk Food Project: Sheffield and Real Junk Food Project Wigan- Fur Clemt cafe consecutively.

Then, week beginning 20th October, we will be off to Coniston and Lawson Park for the ‘House of Ferment’ with Grizedale Arts – talking an ‘Archaic Revival of Food’ and the significance of fermentation as a political act.

We are still waiting to hear about a potential appearance at the Food Sovereignty gathering on the weekend of the 23rd October but look to be back for another workshop on the 26th October at our home and hub of radical food politics, Silo.

We will also be running a workshop on behalf of the ‘Feed the 5K’ event in Brighton, date to be confirmed later this month.

Thanks to everyone that makes this work possible. Proper gratitude! Check out some of our recent workshop photos below 🙂

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Old Tree Coop discuss the politics of their micro-brewery and the drinks kefir and kombucha.

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Thread cut like a pro – participants get to grips with sauerkraut.

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Investigating kefir.

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Sweet Tatty’s ready for some spice.

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The famous seabuckthorn kefir – with a seabuckthorn champagne in the wings. Only at Silo, Brighton.

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Packing a punch: Fermented Salsa.

Recipes spun from the ‘brown gold’.

The motivation behind this blog was never to showcase particular recipes as such – but it just feels selfish to keep these two hidden away from the rest of the world. You can only post so many pictures of raw chocolate creations to your facebook feed before friends get impatient for a few guidelines.

I’m definitely a fan of raw chocolate – I like its ‘buzz’, its clarity, distinctiveness and purity. For the past few years I’ve been very lucky to live above a popular health food store in Brighton and a fair chunk of my food budget has been spent sampling the delights that the world of raw chocolate has to offer: from bigger operations such as the raw chocolate company, raw living & raw pie – to more recently, local artisanal produce courtesy of ‘Temple’ chocolate (highly recommended); with flavours such as ‘goji and mulberries’ and ‘rose and lavender’.

Don’t get me wrong, there’s no doubt that the shelves downstairs provide a wonderful selection of ‘quick fixes’ – but I prefer to make my own from time to time. Despite the good quality of ingredients contained in many raw chocolate products, producers still tend to fill their products with improperly prepared nuts (phytate nightmate) and sweeteners that some of us on stricter protocols and regimes would rather avoid. Anyway, I reckon I’ve conjured a few recipes here that many of us can enjoy and they’re a proper marvel in the mouth – but it wouldn’t be an OA post without a bit of background on the good stuff, first.

The origins and spread of the divine ‘Theobroma Cacao‘. 

Chocolate has its genesis as a fruit bestowed upon humanity by an act of divine will – according to the mythology of the Mayan people that is. Discovered by gods in the mountains of the Mexican plains, cacao was gifted to the Maya shortly after humans were deftly crafted from maize plants by the divine grandmother, goddess Xmucane [1]. 

Theobroma Cacao‘, literally meaning the ‘food of the gods’ has been revered by Native American cultures for generations – being used as both medicine and in ritual. In fact, the ritualistic, spiritual and political significance of this plant in these early cultures is a vast and complex affair. The earliest references suggest it was a celebrated crop of the ancient inhabiting members of the lowland regions of the Mexican gulf coast, the Olmecs. Afterward being adapted and enjoyed by the Mayans and then assimilated by the Aztecs (later arrivals to the central valley of Mexico) as food and medicine. In these cultures, cacao was gorged upon by the elites and used in ceremony – with the Mayan’s offering it up in ritual to celebrate the cacao god itself, Ek Chuah, along with the sacrifice of cacao coloured dogs and the blood of warriors [1]. 

Medicinally, cacao was used to carry other medicines too bitter in taste on their own, but also prescribed independently, on account of its own diverse and unique therapeutic qualities. Dillinger et al (2000) provide a very useful (if extensive) analysis of the historical medicinal application of cacao, through an excavation of ancient Mexica culture and later European colonial medical documents. These early texts delineate three general therapeutic applications for cacao: treating emaciated patients to inhibit further decline, to stimulate the nervous system of those feeling fatigued or weak, to aid elimination and to treat a variety of GI conditions.

The colonisation and terrorism of the ancient Mexica cultures severed cacao from its history and sacred and ritualistic basis – with Hernán Cortés, Spanish conquistador, presenting cacao as a form of ‘brown gold’ to King Charles of Spain in 1528 [2]. Cacao’s unappealing taste to the colonisers was adapted to suit the palettes of the raiding elite by adulterating it with cane sugar – and wham, confectionery was born. This surge of interest in cacao in the West, medical or otherwise, was very much resisted by the Christian church, who poured scorn and suspicion on the substance for its ‘exhilarating effects’. However, gradually, cacao, once only prepared as a beverage to anoint the elite of the old Mexica cultures and to be used as medicine, after 1880 became a very popular foodstuff, fashioned into all kinds of fancies and coveted by Western elites [1].

Modern analysis confirms that the therapeutic qualities of chocolate are significant and diverse [2], with cacao’s nutritional profile weighing it in as a very potent ‘superfood’  – which in comparison to other foods, seems to pack a far denser punch of nutrition per ounce. Its ‘richness in carbohydrates, fat and phytonutrient flavonoids’ and a wide-spectrum antioxidant profile, make it a very nourishing, sustaining and anti-inflammatory food: indicated as effecting a broad range of conditions such as ‘cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders and mental health conditions’ [2]. The consumption of cacao is also said to confer enhanced cognition.

These days we are saturated in chocolate – with the global chocolate market value being set at £98.3BN by 2016. The UK chocolate industry alone is worth £3.96BN with a projected 35% increase in sales over the next five years.

But it seems insane to talk about medicine in the context of the confusing array of bags and bars of the stuff on display today – rather than serve the elite, there are temples dedicated to a particular kind of chocolate on every street corner of our towns and cities. Indeed, where food poverty festers, the mars bar reigns king. The chocolate that lines the aisles of our ubiquitous corner shop is a high-sugar, high additive sludge; more brown crack than brown gold – and our communities are hooked. Dark chocolate of varying quality is still popular no doubt but pales in contrast to its highly processed milky cousin.

Of course, all chocolate originates from the cacao bean. However, the different processing methods of cacao churn our very different results. Cocoa, which is produced from cacao via processing and heat treatment, has been shown to be more impoverished nutritionally compared to its comparably unprocessed mother-bean (check out this wicked and friendly analysis by nourishmylife). This claim is rubbished by a number of folk – a main contention being that the definition around what constitutes ‘raw chocolate’ is spurious and unregulated. But further, a number point to the high risk of contamination of cacao that hasn’t been properly heat treated – one study cited frequently points to how naturally occurring ‘mycobiota’ in raw batches of cacao, produce potentially poisonous byproducts such as ‘aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1 and G2, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA ) and ochratoxin A (OTA)’ [3]. There’s also a big hoo-haa about the contamination of cacao because of the insanitary environments it is produced and stored in. It seems a fair point that many are cashing in on a niche market without a proper architecture of scrutiny and regulation in place – but let’s hope that whatever does arise as an antidote, does not put undue or unfair expectations on constraints on already poor, overworked and undervalued producers.

It’s worth bearing in mind that exploitation and abuses inherent to the export and trade of chocolate were not unique to colonialism. Producers are still given an offensive deal on their labour and produce, with big corporations creaming off the real profit at the end of the process when it’s sold to privileged consumers (Check out ‘Stuffed & Starved’ by Raj Patel for a good analysis). A recent article on takepart explores the issue of child labor in chocolate production too – for example, there has been a 46% increase in the number of children working in ‘hazardous conditions [on cocoa farms] between 2009 and 2014 in the Ivory Coast alone’. Of course, the study was commissioned by the US Department of Labor – it’s unclear what the political motivations of that kind of inquiry are. Nevertheless, it says something important about an economy whereby parents are forced to put their children to work, because of the pittance they are paid for their toil.

Overall, cacao definitely has a colourful (dark?) history (and an uncertain future, given climate change) and disputes around its proper preparation and uses persist even today. If you indulge in cocoa or cacao, try and remember its complex and sacred legacy and to honour it as much as possible by putting your money where it counts; supporting ethical sources and products, that treat their workers and the environment that holds and supports them, with respect. 

 

How to make some good stuff:

Here is the recipe for ‘medjool date and mulberry bites’ – you’ll have to wait for the ‘chocolate pecan fudge’, I’ll make that batch in the next few days.

 

Equipment list:

  1. A pan of water.
  2. A heat-resistant bowl that fits snuggly inside the pan (ceramic or stainless steel).
  3. A wooden spoon.
  4. Scales.
  5. A blender.
  6. A tablespoon.
  7. A teaspoon.
  8. A measuring jug.
  9. A mold of some description to decant your mixture into.

Ingredient list:

  1. 125G of raw cacao butter.
  2. 4 TBSP of raw cacao powder.
  3. 1 TBSP of maca.
  4. 1 TBSP of lacuma (enirely optional – sweet enough).
  5. 6-9 medjool dates.
  6. Large TBSP of coconut oil.
  7. 1 TSP of vanilla essence.
  8. Handful of mulberries.
  9. 1/2 TSP of spirulina (optional – nutritional enough!).
  10. Cap full of maple syrup (entirely option – sweet enough!)
Ingredients (some of them).

Ingredients (some of them).

 

Process:

  1. Bring your water to a boil and turn down to simmer, nestle your bowl into the pan.
  2. Weigh out 125G of raw cacao butter and add to the bowl.
  3. Wait until the cacao butter has melted.
  4. Blend your dates into a smooth paste.
  5. Add the paste to the cacao butter.
  6. Add 4TBSP of raw cacao powder.
  7. Add 1TBSP of coconut oil.
  8. Stir the mixture slowly, pressing the mixture firmly to the side of the bowl so that the fruit slowly dissolves (don’t be tempted to blend – it disturbs the end product).
  9. Add 1TSP of vanilla essence.
  10. Add 1TBSP of Maca (if no lacuma, add 1/2TBSP more).
  11. Add 1TBSP of Lacuma (optional).
  12. Add 1/2TSP of spirulina (entirely optional – nutritious enough without).
  13. Add a small cap full of maple syrup (entirely optional – sweet enough without).
  14. Stir the mixture gently, still gently pressing out the fruit.
  15. Transfer the mixture to a measuring jug.
  16. Add 1 to 2 mulberries to each of the mold sections.
  17. Use a teaspoon to take the thicker mixture from the bottom of the jug and spread evenly across your mold.
  18. Top the rest up with the remaining liquified mixture.
  19. Refrigerate until solid.
  20. Enjoy.
Weigh out your cacao butter.

Weigh out your cacao butter.

Melt your cacao butter.

Melt your cacao butter.

Blend your dates into a paste.

Blend your dates into a paste.

Prepare your trays with mulberries.

Prepare your trays with mulberries.

Add your dates and other ingredients to the cacao butter, squash out the dates gently.

Add your dates and other ingredients to the cacao butter, squash out the dates gently.

Once suitable consistency. Transfer to jug.

Once suitable consistency. Transfer to jug.

Spoon out the thick date mixture into the tray first.

Spoon out the thick date mixture into the tray first.

Top off with the liquid chocolate.

Top off with the liquid chocolate.

 

Stay tuned for ‘chocolate pecan fudge’ =D

 

 

References:

[1] Dillinger et al (2006). Food of the Gods: Cure for Humanity? A Cultural History of the Medicinal and Ritual Use of Chocolate. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 130:(8) 20575-20725

[2] Lippi, D. (2013). Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food. Nutrients. 5:(5) 1573-1584

[3] Sánchez-Hervás, M et al. (2008). Mycobiota and mycotoxin producing fungi from cocoa beans. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 125: 336 – 340

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘Vessels of Dissent’ – Fermentation as politics from below.

It’s easy to misinterpret fermentation as some unremarkable practice, carried out by fuzzy old ladies in farmhouse kitchens in the back of beyond – and of course it is, but that’s not all of it. In fact, the potency of those few fizzing mason jars and cobwebbed crocks hanging out in your nan’s cupboard goes far beyond taste and an old wives remedy: they symbolise a kind of politics from below; a lively critique of the way we live our lives and how we understand our bodies and their place in nature.

It’s no secret that fermentation is making a comeback in the West or that knowledge(s) about the importance of the microbiome are resurfacing again (contrary to the arrogance and imperialism of biomedicine, this is not a new discovery or even particular to the West). Katz’s revivalist efforts are now complimented by a landslide of interest in the techniques of wild fermentation, of culturing and preserving. Every other week, peculiar and inventive little projects crop up in urban centres and beyond, preaching the lacto-gospel: fermentation on wheels, fermentation installations, fermentation festivals, blogs, podcasts and potlucks. In my home town of Brighton, fermented products now appear on swanky restaurant menus, with gourmet chef’s the world over crafting taste-experiences from this age old tradition. Sourdough bread, a novelty only years ago in the face of its cheap, white and easily processed rival, is (for the reasonably well heeled) becoming a staple once again.

An ‘archaic revival’ in food is occurring; less of us now blink uncritically at the waves of corporate propaganda of ‘tasty’ and ‘convenient’ food. A generation of medical refugees, sick and fatigued by denatured and contaminated food and the biased and mechanical prescriptions of their biomedical Doctors, are reaching into the past to reclaim life affirming knowledge and skills. Fermentation is one of those skills, with each dry-salt or brine having a cascade of effects beyond its container – they are ‘vessels of dissent’, the web of relations and effects extending from them into cultural, environmental and political realms.

Challenging contemporary food culture:

There are now endless texts rallying against our contemporary food culture, all with the same underpinning message, which is that the commodification of our food and the profit motive in food production has run amok and the system that prevails undermines the well being of our animals, the health of our people and communities and ultimately, the ecological balance of our planet too.

Every so often, (usually) independent media gives us a glimpse of the horrors of the industrialised method applied to food production: animals are treated like objects, workers no better and the 41k+yYzyf4L._UY250_food itself is engineered and adapted to predictable outcomes (usually lucrative ones) with no thought for the human, animal and environmental costs and consequences.

Curiously, just as globalisation encourages the spread of different cuisines and our experiential access of different cultures and their foodways, the homogenisation of our food: its taste, texture, appearance and content in Pollan’s words: rolls out like a ‘great undifferentiated lawn across the globe’.

Food has become a ‘private transnational commodity’, subjected to the whims and fancies of our market economy. The communities once built up around food have dissolved as ‘buyers’ interact with ‘producers’ and alienated ‘consumers’ attend brightly lit and sanitary halls, stocked with food-commodities – their origins, histories and stories of human / nature co-creation muffled and obscured by cellophane packaging and garish labeling; designed to say as little about the product as possible and c990dd4941eabdb4d49e7a2ec0f9f745everything about the dream of sunshine, clucking hens and the ‘good life’ that most of us rarely get to experience, never mind the food.

This violent separation of the urban consumer from food production and producers, means that (massively exploited) producers, no longer tied or responsible to their communities, shell out denatured food using all manner of toxic inputs and processes to please ever more stringent targets set by buyers. And consumers, distracted from the ‘non-economic attributes’ of food, approach it in the most objectifying way as to be almost apathetic about it beyond its superficial qualities.

Perhaps it is this disconnection from and appreciation of our food in its totality (as beyond just food; embodying a sacred web of relations and connections) that makes for such depression in our Foodcommunities, such listlessness and dissatisfaction at what should be a simple joy. The commodification of our food has created an artificial scarcity and exclusive hierarchy, where only the privileged eat and eat well – ‘routine hunger, malnutrition, premature deaths, famine’ and noxious amounts of waste are the byproducts of this system.

Fermentation then, is an ‘eloquent protest’ in the face of these circumstances, a reconnection with food-as-nutrition, which in turn encourages a respect for the nature of food itself and the people, animals and land that make it possible. The complexity of any one ferment, its inherent ecology of bacteria and enzymes, their innumerable interactions and bubbling byproducts puts us in touch with the wonder of food again. There’s nothing plastic, artificial or detached about sourdough, kefir, miso or kimchi – they are literally frothing with life and overflowing with life-force; ecologies of such spectacular diversity that our previous food-programming perishes under a radical remembering of the life and magic of our food.

The experimentation and play that accompanies fermentation represents a rejection of the predictable, affected and meaningless products churned out by the market – it is a celebration of distinctiveness, the peculiar, of artisanship and taste. The communities that thrive around Commodity-Tradingfermentation, mirroring the excitement of the ferment itself, branch out and swell – spreading knowledge, practices, skills and wisdom. Old food-economies are transformed by new energy and insights and new and alternative economies are born; where small producers and hobbyists deliver innovations and operate on different principles, such as the pioneers of the ‘sacred’ or ‘gift’ economies. Time and energy is reclaimed from the current ecocidal economy and trajectory to stage a revolution from our kitchens – ultimately, food is de-commodified and becomes meaningful again.

The biomedical monopoly and the mechanistic worldview.

Chronic disease have become a remarkably persistent feature of our contemporary medical landscape. Indeed, over 60% of deaths worldwide are now reported as resulting from a variety of chronic conditions. This phenomena goes someway to framing the explosion of interest in fermentation, as more and more people engage with the health benefits of these sour and whiffy creations.

Beyond their alleviation of various ailments and maladies, this popular engagement with fermentation as a healing modality shifts the way we relate to our bodies and how we perceive The biomedical approach.their place in nature, challenges the current biomedical orthodoxy on what illness is and how health can be attained and asks serious questions about what legitimate knowledge is when it comes to health and disease.

‘Biomedicine’ is another way, in anthropological parlance, of talking about the kind of clinical medicine, grounded in the scientific worldview, that has been the dominant mainstay of our medical landscape since the scientific revolution of the 19th century. Early on, biomedicine’s legitimacy was derived from its handle on bacteriology and the control of serious infections (no joke in the squalor of the sprawling and insanitary urbanism of the time). Its dominant position in the field of health the world over is in most cases underwritten by the State.

Biomedicine is founded on certain principles, which defines health by the absence of symptoms and which focuses chiefly on the biological and physiological causes of illness and disease – to the detriment of social / cultural / political and environmental factors which are themselves significant determinants of health and which, notably, are considered in the more holistic modalities that biomedicine has spent most of its career trying to repress, humiliate and appropriate. In many ways, medicine should be one of the most robust forms of social critique we have – after all, where inequality, oppression, deprivation, isolation or a lack of social cohesion or personal fulfillment fester, disease will too.

In essence, the biomedical worldview is reductive as opposed to expansive – medical problems are observed as stemming from some biological pathology and treatment is usually oriented at particular malfunctioning cells or systems in isolation, via surgery or pharmacology – and more holistic interpretations of illness and disease are discounted as ‘quackery’.

Popular dissatisfaction with biomedicine is not a new phenomenon, the wave of lay disillusionment with the discipline began in the 1970’s with the rise of a medical counter-culture in San Francisco that saw a surge of interest in new magical and holistic approaches to health, as well as in ancient systems of health care from the East such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda.

Apart from biomedicine’s obvious biological determinism, people were and are fatigued at the iatrogenic effects of its interventions and medicines, its excessive medicalisation of all areas of life, the invasive nature of its procedures, its bureaucratic and high tech nature and its complete failure in the realm of chronic disease.  Nevertheless, its formidable material base, its legal / political protections and affinity with the capitalist outlook have allowed it to sweep any dissent under the carpet and appropriate any useful aspects of alternative medical models or systems.

Credit: Stephen Jeffrey.

The antibiotic has been one of the main modes of pharmaceutical intervention in the biomedical arsenal over the last 70 years. In 1940, antibiotics were heralded as a revolution in medicine and they have no doubt helped us to bring some very serious infections under control. But their abuse, both in human and in animals, has led to aggressive and drug resistant pathogens becoming a persistent feature of our microbial landscape. The consequence of this biomedical worldview is a cultural paranoia around microbes which equates to what Sandor Katz calls ‘the war on bacteria’; from ‘pseudo-medical’ practices like antibacterial hand washing to chlorine in our water supply, we have become almost neurotic about nuking these vital unseen ecologies.

Away from the proliferation of drug-resistant pathogens, no longer kept in check via the natural competitive environment of healthy microbial ecologies, there are even more sinister and pernicious consequences. The biodiversity and integrity of our internal microbiome (our resident ecologies of bacteria and microbes which ‘interact to form complex webs of mutual support’ and which promote optimum metabolic, immune and cognitive function) suffers irrevocably, with the consequences of this destabilisation only now becoming apparent. As Martin Blaser describes in his book “Missing Microbes’, the disappearance or extinction of a ‘keystone species’ of bacteria in the human microbiome means the overall ‘ecology suffers and can even collapse’.

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Check out: ‘Your microbiome may hold keys to cancer treatment’.

This is the context to the ‘modern plagues’ that are now a common feature of everyday life – obesity, diabetes, asthma, oesophageal reflux, hayfever, eczema and other skin conditions; inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis and Chrohn’s as well as various types of cancer have all been linked in some way to disturbances in the microbiome. Heart disease, hypertension, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, osteoporosis and chronic fatigue have too become persistent features of the modern medical landscape – many no doubt accompanied by conditions of the gut, usually denied or at least rarely investigated by biomedical doctors, such as ‘leaky gut syndrome’, ‘gut dysbiosis’ or ‘small intestinal bacterial overgrowth’. Not to mention the increased frequency of all kinds of cognitive ailments such as anxiety, depression, dyslexia and autism – the book Gut & Psychology Syndrome by Natasha McBride will be a revealing read for anyone interested in the gut/brain axis here. Finally, food allergies, almost undetectable in indigenous communities engaged in pre-modern lifestyles, are at epidemic levels. It’s clear that something has gone badly wrong.

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Check out Blaser’s book!

The research on probiotic therapy is encouraging and many of the conditions above are indicated as improving and sometimes being wholly resolved by bolstering and enhancing our internal flora with particular focused strains. However, ideas about the appropriate composition of the human microbiome is yet more biomedical conjecture, with studies borne out in indigenous communities turning up strains of bacteria identified as potentially harmful in Western hosts. Reliance on commercial probiotics for healing, whilst definitely appropriate in some instances, also support the very same system and corporations that have a chequered history as regards to human health and the environment; Monsanto, Nestle, Pepsico and General Mills have all funded studies on the gut and the microbiome and the probiotic industry is set to become a $45BN market by 2018.

Fermentation and the new medical paradigm.

Fermentation then, comes into its own here too – of course, little official research has been done on nanna’s crocks in terms of their therapeutic application and effects: testing is a tightly controlled industry (with big pharma the usual benefactors) and no one is likely to earn money from age old techniques we can all have a bash at! But there is no reason why bacteria growing in home ferments cannot be as beneficial and resilient as commercially produced strains. Indeed, indexwhat is more important is ‘variety, diversity and incorporating the bacteria native to different raw ingredients’ and I would add, the local environment. In a world where the ‘randomised control trial’ has become the oracle of truth and legitimacy, through fermentation, subjective knowledge and experiences of healing becomes important once again. Nanna’s arthritic knee eased by her daily kombucha stays eased, irrespective of whether the result has been validated by a biased trial or not.

Fundamentally, dabbling in the fermentation arts is to challenge the biomedical monopoly. Whereas biomedicine prefers itself as the sole arbiter of medical knowledge, our fermentivist communities know differently – our lacto-adventures encourage new understandings of the body, of health and disease and ultimately our relation to nature.

When we consider that the reality of our bodies is that we are just 10% human (bacteria outweigh human cells in the body 10 to 1), it dawns on us that we are not so much mechanical, individuated microbiome-title-890x395and self-contained as ecological, expansive and interdependent. We begin to approach the body as an ecology in and of itself, a vibrant system where all parts are interdependent: an ecology situated within a larger ecology, which is our environment, the planet and its lifeforms. We begin to realise that our symptoms are not genetically dictated but are epigenetic phenomena, which mirrors to some extent a rupture or impropriety in the way we relate, biologically or consciously, to our environment at large.

To take a case in point: recently a bit of research was released that showed how social anxiety in adults was relieved through regular consumption of fermented foods. What are the consequences for understanding social anxiety here? Is social anxiety purely a relational phenomenon between humans, born of some personal and internal imbalance or neurosis? Or does social anxiety have a more holistic foundation – does it stem also from a disruption in our unseen connection to nature: dependent on our internal mirroring of the microbial biodiversity external to us?

Fermentation and replenishing the microbiome is of course not a panacea – health involves a truly holistic perspective (social, political, environmental, biological, emotional and spiritual), not a limited one. But its practice and enjoyment raise important questions about humanity, culture, biopsychsocial-modelecology and healing. The revival of this ancient practice has significant consequences for the biomedical worldview, as it does for our economy and culture at large – lay interest in alternative approaches and systems of health creates a critical mass difficult to ignore by biomedicine, which in an attempt to diffuse the revolt is necessarily changed itself through its natural impulse to monitor, marginalize, control and appropriate. The emergence of the biopsychosocial approach to health from within biomedicine, or pyschoneuroimmunology is a product of this very same process.

The ‘gut as centre’ and beyond.

By now, I hope we’ve established that our fizzy concoctions are potent beyond their basic utility. Each forkful of our tangy treats is a kindly gesture of homage toward the unseen ecology and lifeforms with whom we live so interdependently. The recognition of this symbiosis does not just reverberate change into our food economy and conceptions of health, disease and approaches to healing – the circle expands to effect our politics, environment and communities too.

The art of fermentation is in many ways a way of placing the ‘gut as centre’ to our philosophy to life and healing – which may hold great transformational potential for our societies. The gut in eastern philosophy is understood as a store of great power and potential. Zen Monk’s will always motion at IMG_4794the gut if one asks, ‘from where do you think’? And this makes perfect sense, given that we know the gut, or ‘second brain’, boasts around 100 million neurons, uses more than 30 neurotransmitters (the same amount found in the brain), and harbours around 95% of the body’s serotonin (serotonin plays an important part in the regulation of learning, mood, sleep and other essential regulatory processes). It enjoys a unique communicative relationship with the brain and is a primary (and incredibly sensitive) interface with our external environment. It is also home to the largest colony of microbes in our bodies, totaling some 500-600 different species and weighing in at around 1.5-2KG – the harmonious balance and biodiversity of which is our best line of defence to the onset of the many ‘modern plagues’ that now ail us.

Looking after the gut as a source of vitality, health and well-being is paramount. Whether that’s limiting the amount of damaging foods you’re exposing yourself too, or attempting to support or re-establish a good flora via fermented foods. Indeed, nurturing your microbiome is a true recognition and practice of holism: it requires that we have a proper relationship with the external, germswith the ability to nourish our gut in particular ways – to bring that reality into alignment has ramifications beyond the individual, into wider social, political and environmental realms. A change in the way we relate to external structures, effectively impacts and transforms those structures in terms of what they do and are able to provide.

Ultimately then, along with other traditional forms of food prep and knowledge, fermentation is one of our key tools in honouring the gut as centre – and in this respect is a radical act: a form of activism on the margins, a DIY warfare of the unseen against the life-inimical forces of our ecocidal economy. Our cupboards don’t contain innocuous jars of mere pickled veg, they contain ‘vessels of dissent’, which symbolise a re-awakening to an ecological consciousness counter to the mechanical and toxic drudgery of the pharma-military-industrial complex.

Octopus Alchemy RJFP - Source Thom Novi-2

Octopus Alchemy in action.

Through the art of fermentation, the body is disassembled conceptually and we become infinitely complex and profoundly connected to nature; we rely less on biomedicine or biomedical knowledge, seeking to improve and nurture microbial ecologies rather than decimate them; pharmaceutical use declines; our individual relationship to food changes and so does the organisation of our communities around food, their connection to producers are changed and monopolies are shaken; alternative economies flourish and communities too; food waste declines and organic produce is sought; better land management occurs and biodiversity improves; soils enrich and carbon is captured; we enjoy better connection with each other and the land, more meaning and more truth; stress declines, happiness increases, cognition, immunity and health improve overall.

After an afternoon of scribbling out the web of relations that extend from the art of fermentation, I can say there seems hardly an area left untouched. If there’s ever been a more persuasive reason to get alchemical, surely this is it.

Food-Fermentation workshop @ Silo with Octopus Alchemy & Old Tree Coop (Monday 27TH JULY @ 6.30PM).

On Monday, July 27th @ 6.30pm, Silo and Octopus Alchemy are teaming up to deliver a food-fermentation workshop. Come along and seize your chance to gain loads of great practical knowledge on fermentation and the incredible healing properties of live food, and also learn some about the history and context behind the demise of traditional foods and practices like fermentation in the industrialised world.

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Sauerkraut making with Octopus Alchemy @ The Foodshed, Brighton.

You’ll get the opportunity to do some creative hands-on fermenting at the restaurant, with ingredients sourced by us depending on their season and availability. You get to take home a batch of whatever is made too, with the rest being served up at Silo once it’s fizzing suitably some weeks later.

Alongside the wild ferments sauerkraut and fermented nut cheese, specifically this week we’ll be looking at an authentic recipe for kimchi: the potent Korean staple that has become a global fascination (check out an amazing introduction to kimchi, here). True to the principles of localism and sustainability, we’ll also look at adapting the recipe to fit what ingredients are in season and more readily available to us. Further, Nick Godshwa from the Old Tree Coop will be providing an introduction to, demonstration and tasting of the fermented beverages, kombucha and kefir. Not to mention an insight into the ethos and philosophy of their venture. 

Kombucha & Kefir Interactive

Kombucha & Kefir Interactive

 The event runs for approximately two hours and is priced at £25 which should be paid in advance. There are some concessions available. The workshop is limited to twenty people, so please remember to book.

To book, please email octopusalchemy@gmail.com

To confirm attendance via facebook, click here.

If you have any spare jars knocking around at home, bring them in and make sure you get to take some of your creation home with you (small jars please)! Otherwise, any spare jars knocking around at home will be very welcome by the restaurant.

What to expect:

  • 40min introduction to the politics of fermented foods and their health benefits.
  • A short introduction and demonstration of the fermented beverages, kombucha and kefir by our friend Nick Godshwa at The Old Tree Coop.
  • Demonstration of four different ferments.
  • A chance to experiment with different versions of sauerkraut and kimchi in a practical exercise.
  • Take a portion home with you!
  • A chance to taste and buy some pre-made kimchi.
  • A bloody good time.

Nick Godshwa & Old Tree Coop

A little bit about your host: Octopus Alchemy is a social venture in Brighton that talks food-politics and traditional foods. It is run by Darren Ollerton: a food-activist, blogger and bodyworker living in Brighton. You can see testimonials about OA workshops here.

Wild Fermentation – why it’s healthy and how to do it.

This blog post on fermentation is an excerpt from the Octopus Alchemy handbook on fermentation – you can access the full text here.

Fermentation:
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Traditional sauerkraut – salt n’ cabbage.

Fermentation is the transformation of food by various bacteria, fungi and the enzymes and acids that they produce. The power of fermentation has been harnessed throughout the ages to preserve foods. The other amazing offshoot being that fermentation also creates vibrant, living food that can be used as a powerful healing modality too, whilst reconnecting us with the ecology at large.

Before there were cans, refrigerators and freezers, fermentation was the main way people avoided spoiling food. The earliest forms of fermentation took place in pits, lined with leaves and packed full of all kinds of food: vegetables, meat, fish, grains, tubers and fruit. The practice of fermentation is pre-history. It is difficult to ascertain how and where it began. Louis Pasteur is given credit for identifying and pioneering the science of microbiology in 1857. Before that, early cultures were experimenting with and enjoying the benefits of different ferments, without the intricate knowledge we have today.

The health benefits of fermented foods:
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Wonderful attendees of our workshops!

Ultimately, fermenting foods makes them more nutritious. In some cases, there arise entirely new and unique nutrients during the fermentation process. Fermentation is essentially a form of pre-digestion, it breaks food down into simpler, safer and more manageable forms that the body can handle. Long protein chains, fats and carbohydrates difficult for the body to absorb are broken down by the resident lactic acid bacteria: carbohydrates are converted into lactic acid and proteins are broken down into amino acids. Minerals are thus better absorbed. Eating fermented foods also encourages healthy acid production in the stomach, which in turn encourages better performance of the pancreas and liver and therefore secretion of essential digestive enzymes and bile. Further, most of the lactic acid ferments are acidic, but have a significant alkalizing effect in the body.

Fermentation also degrades toxic or undesirable substances in food – two prominent examples are cyanide in cassava and phytic acid, a particularly insidious anti-nutrient found in most grains (inhibiting the uptake of various essential minerals such as calcium, zinc, magnesium and iron). Oxalic acid, prevalent in leafy green vegetables also hinders the absorption of nutrients and is rendered partly innocuous through fermentation.

The Vitamin C content is also preserved in fermented vegetables, not to mention creating a whole http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/121-a276/host of B vitamins (folic acid, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin and biotin). The process of fermentation also brings forth an abundance of unique micronutrients: Sauerkraut for example contains micronutrients suspected to fight cancer, including isothiocyanates and sulforaphane. Not to mention the master detoxifying glutathione found in the liver. Slimy, strong smelly Natto for instance, a ferment of soy-beans from Japan, produces a unique beneficial enzyme called nattokinase of which the medical applications abound. But even more! Superoxide Dismutase, GTF chromium, phospholipids, digestive enzymes and beta 1,3 glucans – in short, fermented foods are small powerhouses of nutrition which promote a cascade of healing effects in the body that we’re just beginning to chart out and understand.

Wild Fermentation:
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Carrot, chilli, horesradish and garlic.

“Wild fermentation” is the technique of using and manipulating the bacteria already present in foods, to preserve and transform food into more readily digestible and therapeutic forms. Most fermentation processes rely on the complementary relationship and interaction between different forms of bacteria, yeasts and sometimes molds to bring about the desired effect / product. The most important and desirable bacteria in our ferments are the lactobacillaceae, which have the ability to produce lactic acid from carbohydrates. Other important bacteria, especially in the fermentation of fruits and vegetables, are the acetic acid producing acetobacter species[1].

Away from wild fermentation, other forms of fermentation may use a started culture, such as from whey, a product of raw milk. The practice of fermentation is widespread, and exists in every culture. It is one of the most important methods to process food. Today, no less than a third of what is eaten in the world is made via a process of fermentation. Many of these foods and beverages are extremely popular, although few people will consciously realize that fermentation processes are involved. But coffee, chocolate, vanilla, bread, cheese, wine, mean and beer, yoghurt, ketchup and most other condiments; vinegar, soy sauce, miso, certain teas, corned beef and pastrami, ham and salami are all dependent on fermentation.

Here are some examples of different fermented foods:

Products of lactic acid fermentation include: Sauerkraut, olives, pickled vegetables, kimchi, Russian kefir, Indian dahi, yoghurt, spice from the Middle East, Western cheeses and sausages, Egyptian laban and kishk, Greek and Turkish trahana, Mexican pozole, sourdough bread, Indian idle, dohkla and Khaman, Ethiopian teffinjera and Thai fish sauce.

Products of alkaline fermentation are less known. In alkaline-fermented foods, “the protein of the raw materials is broken down into amino acids and peptides; ammonia is released during the fermentation, raising the pH of the final products and giving the food a strong ammoniacal smell.

Most alkaline fermentations are achieved spontaneously by mixed bacteria cultures, principally dominated by Bacillus subtilis. Although in some cases, pure cultures can be used.

Products of alkaline fermentation include: African iru and ogiri, dawadawa, pidan and kenima; Japanese natto, Thai thua nao and pidan.

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Lovely, simple book on fermentation – buy it!

Wild fermentation is a very simple technique. Using good quality vegetables (preferably organic), salt and water, it doesn’t take an expert to produce the incredibly tasty and healing foods discussed above. By submerging the chopped vegetables in salty brine, you create an environment in which fungi and other oxygen-dependent organisms cannot survive. The saline environment also ensures that the lactic acid bacteria are given priority and develop. The bacteria that spur on the fermentation process are already present in the vegetables, lying dormant until the conditions are appropriate: moist, oxygen-free, saline and with easy access to nutrients in the plant material that have been sufficiently prepared and bruised.

Leuconostoc-mesenteroides-

L. Mesenteroides

The bacteria responsible for fermentation are wild strains of lactic acid bacteria that are already present on raw vegetables, including Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. These are halophilic (salt loving) anaerobic organisms, so they thrive in the oxygen-free saline environment that the fermenter has created. They immediately begin to feed on the sugars in the vegetables or fruit, and multiply. Emitting large amounts of lactic acid, which poisons and inhibits the growth of their competitors. L. mesenteroides flourish under all kinds of circumstances, such as salty, sweet, partly aerobic, low acidic conditions typical of the environment at the beginning of a fermentation. Like most other lactobacilli, L. mesenteroides convert these types of sugars into lactic acid, acetic acid and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide dispels any remaining oxygen from the ecosystem, so that the conditions are appropriate for the strict anaerobes, which prevent the plant material from loosing its color and decaying.

The ecosystem inside your fermentation vessel is where one type of bacteria succeeds another, and each species adapts to the environment in such a way that appropriate conditions are prepared for the next. Each successive species has a better resistance to the acid environment, until L. Plantarum eventually comes to dominate. The sheer amount of lactic acid in the resulting ferment gives the product a sharp sour taste. Essentially, L. Plantarum creates a very stable bacteriological regime, which has a very low pH and which means few other bacteria or pathogens can survive, therefore preventing spoilage and creating a very durable product.

Process and supplies.
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Basi earthenware fermentation jars.

Hygiene:

Some advanced ferments require sterilization of utensils to remove any probability of contamination or failure. But generally, don’t sweat it! Just make sure your work surfaces and utensils are cleaned with a mild (preferably natural) disinfectant. Remember, fermentation is an ages old technique, carried out in less than sterile conditions. The lactobacilli are a hardy bunch that will overcome many a bit of grime.

Water:

Most fermentation methods ask for water and salt. Modern day, urban water supplies are often contaminated with chlorine, which can inhibit the fermentation process. If you do not have a modern filtering system, or want to use bottled water, you can purify the water by bringing it to the boil so that the chlorine evaporates and then letting it cool.

Himalayan Pink Salt

Himalayan Pink Salt

 

Salt and brine:

Salt is a key ingredient in fermentation and care should be taken to acquire a good, wholesome product. Refined salt contains artificially elevated levels of iodine and may be stripped of its natural and abundant mineral content. Use a good salt like Himalayan pink rock salt for optimum effect, but any unrefined sea salt will do.

Leafy vegetables like cabbage, due to their high water content, can ferment in their own juice. However it is sometimes more appropriate to ferment other, tougher vegetables in a pre-made brine.

Below is a useful guide for salting quantities and ratios:

Dry-salt method (as used in Sauerkraut for example): 1.5-2% weight of veggies, or roughly 1.5 – 2 teaspoons per pound (15-20Grams per 1KG of vegetables).

Brine method – 5% to weight of water, or roughly 3 tablespoons per quarter of a gallon (1.13ltrs). (5% = 50 grams of salt in 1 liter of water).

Grains – 1.5-2% weight of dry grains, or roughly 1.5-2 teaspoons/pound.

As you progress in fermentation, you will learn that many recipes just require salt to taste. But the above is a good guideline to get you started. Although, after a few mistakes of our own, Octopus Alchemy advises that you weigh out the salt quantities to avoid disappointment! Of course some ferments take place without salt, however salt helps the process enormously (Some Indian ferments for example rely on oil to inhibit unfriendly bacteria), providing additional preservation, flavor and texture. To encourage a slower fermentation process, always use more salt, compared for instance, to a ferment you want to be ready in a short time. A brine can also be flavored with spices, with some having their own anti-fungal properties and bringing their own beneficial strains of bacteria to the mix.

Some salty facts:

  • By means of osmosis, salt extracts water from the vegetables. This helps create the watery environment for anaerobic bacteria to flourish.
  • Salt makes the vegetables crisper because it strengthens pectin (a structural polysaccharide in plants) and pectin-degrading enzymes are inhibited.
  • Salt reduces the environment in which different bacteria can survive and give salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria an advantage.

Measures:

1 teaspoon = 5 ml = 5 grams of salt

1 tablespoon = 15 ml = 15 grams of salt

 A simple fermentation process.
  1. Cut, scrape or grate the vegetables.
  2. Choose appropriate salting method: either salt to taste, dry-salt or brine the vegetables.
  3. Place vegetables in your chosen fermentation vessel (buckets, jars and crocks are widely used – but get creative!) and compress firmly until they are submerged beneath the brine and ensure that all oxygen bubbles are removed. Tap the vessel lightly on the table a few times to facilitate this process, or use a few chopsticks to enable bubbles to escape. If there is not enough brine in the vessel, top up with a brine solution at the appropriate ratio (see brine method above). In smaller vessels, like jars, you can use folded up vegetable leaves to act as a plug to keep the ferment underneath the brine. You can also use a boiled stone or glass weights to hold the vegetables down. In bigger vessels, you can use a wooden plug or plate. For anyone lucky enough to have their own traditional fermenting crock, these come with their own fittings to keep the ferment safe under the brine. Check that there is in each vessel a 2 and 4 cm gap between the juice and the rim (fermentation needs space).
  4. Place in an appropriate place at ambient room temperature, out of direct sunlight.
  5. Wait, test, observe and enjoy!
Lacto-fermented mayonnaise.

Lacto-fermented mayonnaise.

*Bruising and cutting the vegetables for more salting will ensure that the plant nutrients are rapidly available for resident bacteria to begin fermentation. Of course, brining methods sometimes involve merely submerging whole vegetables and then leaving them to their own devices – this is fine too! But may take a longer time to ferment.

*There will be a significant build up of CO2 in the fermentation vessel and it is wise to “burp” your vessel to release built up gas for the first few days at least. Take care when eventually opening your ferment to eat for this very reason.

 

Duration.

Fermentation is a cultural practice that developed fundamentally to preserve foods and ensure adequate nutrition for communities the year round. To that end, ferments can be left to fuse and bubble for the length of a season or more. However, most vegetable ferments can be eaten at 7-9 days and are wonderful at 20 days. Taste your evolving ferment with regularity to monitor its progress.

The process of fermentation is dependent on temperature. To warm an environment and the process will occur to quickly – and the ferment will have an inferior quality to one where the temperature is managed properly. Eventually, fermentation vessels will need to be moved to cool storage to slow down the process completely, and to preserve your vegetables for long periods. Knowing when it’s time to do that is all about investigation.

Leave your vessel in a place with an even temperature between 18 and 22° C for up to three of four days. After three of four days, consider moving the vessel to a cooler environment at around 15 – 18°C.

Purple kraut: cabbage, horseradish, ginger and carrot.

Purple kraut: cabbage, horseradish, ginger and carrot.

The fermenting vegetables will become lively and gaseous with CO2 bubbles easy to see in a vessel like a jar, or exploding onto the surface in a crock or container. The smell of the vegetables will also become pleasingly sour. After around 10 – 14 days, check the ferment for activity and smell – at this stage you might consider moving it into a cooler environment still, to slow down the process (under 15°C).

After three to four weeks – chances are the ferment will be reaching optimum acidity, and can be moved into cold storage (a refrigerator or larder below 10°C).

Alternatively, ferments can just be left to bubble for around 20 days at a stable room temperature, and will have reached a good acidity by 20 days and be either ready for consumption, or to be put in the fridge to keep for long periods. Whilst fermented vegetables can be eaten and enjoyed a week and even 20 days into the process, after 5 – 6 and even 12 weeks you will be left with a delicious product.

See what works for you!

Some people want to know when best to eat their ferments depending on when the bacteria content is at it’s highest. Lactic acid bacteria in fermented vegetables tend to follow a bell curve: “populations grow after vegetables are submerged, build to a peak, then decline at high levels of acidity”. The dominant species of bacteria also shifts as time goes on. The best approach in terms of consumption might be to tuck in to your ferment at different intervals to “diversify your bacterial exposure”.

Some basic guidelines and requirements for a lactic acid fermentation:

– A salt concentration of 0.8-2.5%

– A sealable fermentation vessel to restrict oxygen.

– A uniform starting temperature of 20-22 ° C for about 2 days for small glass jars and bottles and up to 10 days for large earthenware jars.

– A cooler temperature (15-18 ° C) for 10-14 days

– A storage temperature preferably below 10 ° C (frost)

Fungi and yeasts

Oxygen is counter-productive to the process of fermentation. To much oxygen in the fermentation vessel may mean that fungi appears on the surface of your ferment – this happens especially along the edges of open bowls or where vegetables come to the surface. Surface growth of fungi is common and normal – it is normally just fine to scoop the layer of fungi or mold from the surface to reveal a perfectly fine ferment underneath. Removing the layer of fungi will prevent it’s tentacles extending deep into the vegetables, and releasing it’s pectin and cellulose destroying enzymes, which may cause the ferment to perish. Preventing this from happening is all about being attentive to your ferments, using your senses and your common sense.

What can be fermented?

Fermenting vegetables does not end with Sauerkraut! Practically anything can be fermented, but of course there is some variation in taste and some things withstand the process better than others. The underlying principle to fermenting all vegetables is to create an appropriate environment for the process, which has already been discussed. Away from that, there is an incredible amount of variation. As Sandor Katz explains: “Some traditions wilt vegetables, either in saltwater brine or in the sun; others pound or bruise fresh vegetables. Some people ferment a single vegetable, while others mix a dozen different vegetables together, perhaps along with spices, fruit, fish, rice, mashed potatoes, or other additions”. This variation is not just limited to process but also to combination: a fascinating array of interpretations on taste and flavor stem from different cultural cuisines. The “Art of Fermentation” is a revival of different recipes from around the world, and an essential book for the kitchen – go get it! Incidentally, Wikipedia also do a fantastic list of fermented foods from around the world.

Mass Kimchi making!

Mass Kimchi making!

Ultimately, there really isn’t a vegetable that cannot be fermented but all will have different results. Cucumbers for example can go soft and soggy, as can summer squash – so it’s important to ferment them in small quantities / make them a minor addition to a combination of other vegetables. Chlorophyll rich plants (kale, collards etc) develop a strong characteristic taste, which will suit some people and not others. The most popular vegetables for fermentation are the tough and hardy kind harvested in the autumn.

Fermentation vegetable index.

Maybe try some of the vegetables below in your ferments and concoctions! And don’t limit yourself to what is available in the supermarket, or what is a product of agriculture. Get creative and forage some wild ingredients, which will bring great flavor and of course their own ecologies of wild bacteria to the mix. Even seaweed may be considered! But please be respectful when Foodforaging, don’t decimate the crop and tread gently on the land. Fermentation is also a great strategy for gleaners, dumpster divers, freegans and the like – pick over vegetables that have been cast out, cut out any mold and process them. Be careful with vegetables that come from establishments known for questionable food ethics, the pesticide / preservative content of vegetables may not bode well for a good ferment.

 Vegetables you can experiment with:

  • Root vegetables: sweet potato, daikon, celeriac, parsnips, radishes, turnips, beetroot, salsify, Jerusalem artichoke (The inulin content of artichokes, which can cause a lot of wind, is broken down very well by fermentation), carrot, parsley root, burdock root.

* Note that beetroot being so sugary can encourage a very yeasty ferment, and therefore quite a syrupy brine.

  • Flower-fruit vegetables: aubergine (fermentation gets rid of the bitterness), pickles, artichoke hearts, cauliflower, broccoli, cucumber, okra, sweet and crisp peppers / chillies, pumpkin, green and red tomatoes (tomatoes fermented can become very acidic and are considered a Jewish delicacy), cut and green beans.
  • Leaf-stalk vegetables: Kohlrabi, bamboo shoots, prickly pear, onion, cauliflower, chard, leeks, ramsons, fennel, chard steal.
  • Fungi ferment well too! Shiitake or any other mushroom can be added to a ferment with other vegetables for an interesting texture.

+ Fruits can be added to vegetable ferments too. Try adding applies, raisins, cranberries, wild berries, plums, quinces or dried fruit to sauerkraut for example. Even watermelon rind can be used.

For an extra crunch – throw some nuts in!

  • Condiments and spices: garlic, ginger and various spices such as juniper inlay, coriander, dill (fresh leaves and flowers, flower heads, dried seed), mustard and caraway seeds, star anise (with beets!), turmeric, cinnamon, cardamom (with cauliflower and carrots!), black pepper and sea salt; lemongrass and lime leaves.

* Some spices have an antifungal effect, and have their own healing properties. Get creative with your brining.

*Garlic is a popular seasoning; often it turns blue during fermentation, which is a reaction of the anthocyanin’s present, which reacts with the traces of copper in drinking water. Garlic is known not to preserve very well under oil because it may contain spores of the botulism bacterium. However, when garlic is under brine, there is no danger of botulism.

  • Fresh vegetables can be combined with bean sprouts or other sprouted legumes or with cooked products such as rice, other cereals, boiled or baked potatoes and purees, and even hard-boiled eggs.

Get creative, get excited and get fermenting!

 

To access this booklet in full click here – or just to see the next section of recipes, click here.